Forest Practice Rules
OAR chapter 629, divisions 600 through 680 are known as the forest practice rules.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 527.710
Stats. Implemented: ORS 527.710 & 527.715
Hist.: DOF 2-2013, f. 7-11-13, cert. ef. 9-1-13
As used in OAR chapter 629, divisions 605 through 669 and divisions 680 through 699, unless otherwise required by context:
(1) "Abandoned resource site" means a resource site that the State Forester determines is not active.
(2) "Active resource site" means a resource site that the State Forester determines has been used in the recent past by a listed species. 'Recent past' shall be identified for each species in administrative rule. Resource sites that are lost or rendered not viable by natural causes are not considered active.
(3) "Active roads" are roads currently being used or maintained for the purpose of removing commercial forest products.
(4) "Aquatic area" means the wetted area of streams, lakes and wetlands up to the high water level. Oxbows and side channels are included if they are part of the flow channel or contain fresh water ponds.
(5) "Artificial reforestation" means restocking a site by planting trees or through the manual or mechanical distribution of seeds.
(6) "Basal area" means the area of the cross-section of a tree stem derived from DBH.
(7) "Basal area credit" means the credit given towards meeting the live tree requirements within riparian management areas for placing material such as logs, rocks or rootwads in a stream, or conducting other enhancement activities such as side channel creation or grazing exclosures.
(8) "Bog" means a wetland that is characterized by the formation of peat soils and that supports specialized plant communities. A bog is a hydrologically closed system without flowing water. It is usually saturated, relatively acidic, and dominated by ground mosses, especially sphagnum. A bog may be forested or non-forested and is distinguished from a swamp and a marsh by the dominance of mosses and the presence of extensive peat deposits.
(9) "Channel" is a distinct bed or banks scoured by water which serves to confine water and that periodically or continually contains flowing water.
(10) "Chemicals" means and includes all classes of pesticides, such as herbicides, insecticides, rodenticides, fungicides, plant defoliants, plant desiccants, and plant regulators, as defined in ORS 634.006(8); fertilizers, as defined in 633.311; petroleum products used as carriers; and chemical application adjuvants, such as surfactants, drift control additives, anti-foam agents, wetting agents, and spreading agents.
(11) "Commercial" means of or pertaining to the exchange or buying and selling of commodities or services. This includes any activity undertaken with the intent of generating income or profit; any activity in which a landowner, operator or timber owner receives payment from a purchaser of forest products; any activity in which an operator or timber owner receives payment or barter from a landowner for services that require notification under OAR 629-605-0140; or any activity in which the landowner, operator, or timber owner barters or exchanges forest products for goods or services. This does not include firewood cutting or timber milling for personal use.
(12) "Completion of the operation" means harvest activities have been completed to the extent that the operation area will not be further disturbed by those activities.
(13) "Conflict" means resource site abandonment or reduced resource site productivity that the State Forester determines is a result of forest practices.
(14) "Debris torrent-prone streams" are designated by the State Forester to include channels and confining slopes that drain watersheds containing high landslide hazard locations that are of sufficient confinement and channel gradient to allow shallow, rapid landslide movement.
(15) "Department" means the Oregon Department of Forestry.
(16) "Diameter breast height" (DBH) means the diameter of a tree inclusive of the bark measured four and one-half feet above the ground on the uphill side of the tree.
(17) "Domestic water use" means the use of water for human consumption and other household human use.
(18) "Dying or recently dead tree" means a tree with less than ten percent live crown or a standing tree which is dead, but has a sound root system and has not lost its small limbs. Needles or leaves may still be attached to the tree.
(19) "Estuary" means a body of water semi-enclosed by land and connected with the open ocean within which saltwater is usually diluted by freshwater derived from the land. "Estuary" includes all estuarine waters, tidelands, tidal marshes, and submerged lands extending upstream to the head of tidewater. However, the Columbia River Estuary extends to the western edge of Puget Island.
(20) "Exposure categories" are used to designate the likelihood of persons being present in structures or on public roads during periods when shallow, rapidly moving landslides may occur.
(21) "Filling" means the deposit by artificial means of any materials, organic or inorganic.
(22) "Fish use" means inhabited at any time of the year by anadromous or game fish species or fish that are listed as threatened or endangered species under the federal or state endangered species acts.
(23) "Fledging tree" means a tree or trees close to the nest which the State Forester determines are regularly used by young birds to develop flying skills.
(24) "Foraging area" means an area (usually a body of water) where bald eagles concentrate their hunting activities.
(25) "Foraging perch" means a tree or other structure that overlooks a portion of a foraging area and is habitually used by bald eagles as a vantage point while hunting.
(26) "Forestland" means land which is used for the growing and harvesting of forest tree species, regardless of how the land is zoned or taxed or how any state or local statutes, ordinances, rules or regulations are applied.
(27) “Forest practice” means any operation conducted on or pertaining to forestland, including but not limited to:
(a) Reforestation of forestland;
(b) Road construction and maintenance;
(c) Harvesting of forest tree species;
(d) Application of chemicals;
(e) Disposal of slash; and
(f) Removal of woody biomass.
(28) “Forest tree species” means any tree species capable of producing logs, fiber or other wood materials suitable for the production of lumber, sheeting, pulp, firewood or other commercial forest products except trees grown to be Christmas trees as defined in ORS 571.505 on land used solely for the production of Christmas trees.
(29) "Free to grow" means the State Forester's determination that a tree or a stand of well distributed trees, of acceptable species and good form, has a high probability of remaining or becoming vigorous, healthy, and dominant over undesired competing vegetation. For the purpose of this definition, trees are considered well distributed if 80 percent or more of the portion of the operation area subject to the reforestation requirements of the rules contains at least the minimum per acre tree stocking required by the rules for the site and not more than ten percent contains less than one-half of the minimum per acre tree stocking required by the rules for the site.
(30) "Further review area" means an area of land that may be subject to rapidly moving landslides as mapped by the State Department of Geology and Mineral Industries or as otherwise determined by the State Forester.
(31) "Geographic region" means large areas where similar combinations of climate, geomorphology, and potential natural vegetation occur, established for the purposes of implementing the water protection rules.
(32) “Harvest type 1” means an operation that requires reforestation but does not require wildlife leave trees. A harvest type 1 is an operation that leaves a combined stocking level of free to grow seedlings, saplings, poles and larger trees that is less than the stocking level established by rule of the board that represents adequate utilization of the productivity of the site.
(33) “Harvest type 2” means an operation that requires wildlife leave trees but does not require reforestation. A harvest type 2 does not require reforestation because it has an adequate combined stocking of free to grow seedlings, saplings, poles and larger trees, but leaves:
(a) On Cubic Foot Site Class I, II or III, fewer than 50 11-inch DBH trees or less than an equivalent basal area in larger trees, per acre;
(b) On Cubic Foot Site Class IV or V, fewer than 30 11-inch DBH trees or less than an equivalent basal area in larger trees, per acre; or
(c) On Cubic Foot Site Class VI, fewer than 15 11-inch DBH trees or less than an equivalent basal area in larger trees, per acre.
(34) “Harvest type 3” means an operation that requires reforestation and requires wildlife leave trees. This represents a level of stocking below which the size of operations is limited under ORS 527.740 and 527.750.
(35) "High landslide hazard location" means a specific site that is subject to initiation of a shallow, rapidly moving landslide. The following criteria shall be used to identify high landslide hazard locations:
(a) The presence, as measured on site, of any slope in western Oregon (excluding competent rock outcrops) steeper than 80 percent, except in the Tyee Core Area, where it is any slope steeper than 75 percent; or
(b) The presence, as measured on site, of any headwall or draw in western Oregon steeper than 70 percent, except in the Tyee Core Area, where it is any headwall or draw steeper than 65 percent.
(c) Notwithstanding the slopes specified in (a) or (b) above, field identification of atypical conditions by a geotechnical specialist may be used to develop site specific slope steepness thresholds for any part of the state where the hazard is equivalent to (a) or (b) above. The final determination of equivalent hazard shall be made by the State Forester.
(36) "High water level" means the stage reached during the average annual high flow. The "high water level" often corresponds with the edge of streamside terraces, a change in vegetation, or a change in soil or litter characteristics.
(37) "Hydrologic function" means soil, stream, wetland and riparian area properties related to the storage, timing, distribution, and circulation of water.
(38) "Important springs" are springs in arid parts of eastern Oregon that have established wetland vegetation, flow year round in most years, are used by a concentration of diverse animal species, and by reason of sparse occurrence have a major influence on the distribution and abundance of upland species.
(39) "Inactive roads" are roads used for forest management purposes exclusive of removing commercial forest products.
(40) "Key components" means the attributes which are essential to maintain the use and productivity of a resource site over time. The key components vary by species and resource site. Examples include fledging trees or perching trees.
(41) "Lake" means a body of year-round standing open water.
(a) For the purposes of the forest practice rules, lakes include:
(A) The water itself, including any vegetation, aquatic life, or habitats therein; and
(B) Beds, banks or wetlands below the high water level which may contain water, whether or not water is actually present.
(b) "Lakes" do not include water developments as defined in section (90) of this rule.
(42) "Landslide mitigation" means actions taken to reduce potential landslide velocity or re-direct shallow, rapidly moving landslides near structures and roads so risk to persons is reduced.
(43) “Landowner” means any individual, combination of individuals, partnership, corporation or association of whatever nature that holds an ownership interest in forestland, including the state and any political subdivision thereof.
(44) "Large lake" means a lake greater than eight acres in size.
(45) "Large wood key piece" means a portion of a bole of a tree, with or without the rootwad attached, that is wholly or partially within the stream, that meets the length and diameter standards appropriate to stream size and high water volumes established in the “Guide to Placement of Wood, Boulders and Gravel for Habitat Restoration,” developed by the Oregon Department of Forestry, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Oregon Department of State Lands, and Oregon Watershed Enhancement Board, January 2010.
(46) "Live tree" means a tree that has 10 percent or greater live crown.
(47) "Local population" means the number of birds that live within a geographical area that is identified by the State Forester. For example: the area may be defined by physical boundaries, such as a drainage or subbasin.
(48) "Main channel" means a channel that has flowing water when average flows occur.
(49) "Natural barrier to fish use" is a natural feature such as a waterfall, increase in stream gradient, channel constriction, or other natural channel blockage that prevents upstream fish passage.
(50) "Natural reforestation" means restocking a site with self-grown trees resulting from self-seeding or vegetative means.
(51) "Nest tree" means the tree, snag, or other structure that contains a bird nest.
(52) "Nesting territory" means an area identified by the State Forester that contains, or historically contained, one or more nests of a mated pair of birds.
(53) "Operation" means any commercial activity relating to the establishment, management or harvest of forest tree species except as provided by the following:
(a) The establishment, management or harvest of Christmas trees, as defined in ORS 571.505, on land used solely for the production of Christmas trees.
(b) The establishment, management or harvest of hardwood timber, including but not limited to hybrid cottonwood that is:
(A) Grown on land that has been prepared by intensive cultivation methods and that is cleared of competing vegetation for at least three years after tree planting;
(B) Of a species marketable as fiber for inclusion in the furnish for manufacturing paper products;
(C) Harvested on a rotation cycle that is 12 or fewer years after planting; and
(D) Subject to intensive agricultural practices such as fertilization, cultivation, irrigation, insect control and disease control.
(c) The establishment, management or harvest of trees actively farmed or cultured for the production of agricultural tree crops, including nuts, fruits, seeds and nursery stock.
(d) The establishment, management or harvest of ornamental, street or park trees within an urbanized area, as that term is defined in ORS 221.010.
(e) The management or harvest of juniper species conducted in a unit of less than 120 contiguous acres within a single ownership.
(f) The establishment or management of trees intended to mitigate the effects of agricultural practices on the environment or fish and wildlife resources, such as trees that are established or managed for windbreaks, riparian filters or shade strips immediately adjacent to actively farmed lands.
(g) The development of an approved land use change after timber harvest activities have been completed and land use conversion activities have commenced.
(54) "Operator" means any person, including a landowner or timber owner, who conducts an operation.
(55) "Other wetland" means a wetland that is not a significant wetland or stream-associated wetland.
(56) "Perch tree" means a tree identified by the State Forester which is used by a bird for resting, marking its territory, or as an approach to its nest.
(57) "Plan for an Alternate Practice" means a document prepared by the landowner, operator or timber owner, submitted to the State Forester for written approval describing practices different than those prescribed in statute or administrative rule.
(58) "Relief culvert" means a structure to relieve surface runoff from roadside ditches to prevent excessive buildup in volume and velocity.
(59) "Removal" means the taking or movement of any amount of rock, gravel, sand, silt, or other inorganic substances.
(60) "Replacement tree" means a tree or snag within the nesting territory of a bird that is identified by the State Forester as being suitable to replace the nest tree or perch tree when these trees become unusable.
(61) "Resource site" is defined for the purposes of protection and for the purposes of requesting a hearing.
(a) For the purposes of protection:
(A) For threatened and endangered bird species, "resource site" is the nest tree, roost trees, or foraging perch and all identified key components.
(B) For sensitive bird nesting, roosting and watering sites, "resource site" is the nest tree, roost tree or mineral watering place, and all identified key components.
(C) For significant wetlands "resource site" is the wetland and the riparian management area as identified by the State Forester.
(b) For the purposes of requesting a hearing under ORS 527.670(4) and 527.700(3), "resource site" is defined in OAR 629-680-0020.
(62) "Riparian area" means the ground along a water of the state where the vegetation and microclimate are influenced by year-round or seasonal water, associated high water tables, and soils which exhibit some wetness characteristics.
(63) "Riparian management area" means an area along each side of specified waters of the state within which vegetation retention and special management practices are required for the protection of water quality, hydrologic functions, and fish and wildlife habitat.
(64) "Roosting site" means a site where birds communally rest at night and which is unique for that purpose.
(65) "Roost tree" is a tree within a roosting site that is used for night time roosting.
(66) "Saplings and poles" means live trees of acceptable species, of good form and vigor, with a DBH of one to 10 inches.
(67) "Seedlings" means live trees of acceptable species of good form and vigor less than one inch in DBH.
(68) "Shallow, rapidly moving landslide" means any detached mass of soil, rock, or debris that begins as a relatively small landslide on steep slopes and grows to a sufficient size to cause damage as it moves down a slope or a stream channel at a velocity difficult for people to outrun or escape.
(69) "Side channel" means a channel other than a main channel of a stream that only has flowing water when high water level occurs.
(70) "Significant wetlands" means those wetland types listed in OAR 629-680-0310, that require site specific protection, as follows:
(a) Wetlands that are larger than eight acres;
(c) Bogs; and
(d) Important springs in eastern Oregon.
(71) "Snag" means a tree which is dead but still standing, and that has lost its leaves or needles and its small limbs.
(72) "Sound snag" means a snag that retains some intact bark or limb stubs.
(73) "Staging tree" is a tree within the vicinity of a roosting site that is used for perching by bald eagles before entering the roost.
(74) “State Forester” means the State Forester or the duly authorized representative of the State Forester.
(75) "Stream" means a channel, such as a river or creek, that carries flowing surface water during some portion of the year.
(a) For the purposes of the forest practice rules, streams include:
(A) The water itself, including any vegetation, aquatic life, or habitats therein;
(B) Beds and banks below the high water level which may contain water, whether or not water is actually present;
(C) The area between the high water level of connected side channels;
(D) Beaver ponds, oxbows, and side channels if they are connected by surface flow to the stream during a portion of the year; and
(E) Stream-associated wetlands.
(b) "Streams" do not include:
(A) Ephemeral overland flow (such flow does not have a channel); or
(B) Road drainage systems or water developments as defined in section (90) of this rule.
(76) "Stream-associated wetland" means a wetland that is not classified as significant and that is next to a stream.
(77) "Structural exception" means the State Forester determines that no actions are required to protect the resource site. The entire resource site may be eliminated.
(78) "Structural protection" means the State Forester determines that actions are required to protect the resource site. Examples include retaining the nest tree or perch tree.
(79) "Temporal exception" means the State Forester determines that no actions are required to prevent disturbance to birds during the critical period of use.
(80) "Temporal protection" means the State Forester determines that actions are required to prevent disturbance to birds during the critical period of use.
(81) “Timber owner” means any individual, combination of individuals, partnership, corporation or association of whatever nature, other than a landowner, that holds an ownership interest in any forest tree species on forestland.
(82) "Tree leaning over the channel" means a tree within a riparian management area if a portion of its bole crosses the vertical projection of the high water level of a stream.
(83) "Tyee Core Area" means a location with geologic conditions including thick sandstone beds with few fractures. These sandstones weather rapidly and concentrate water in shallow soils creating a higher shallow, rapidly moving landslide hazard. The Tyee Core area is located within coastal watersheds from the Siuslaw watershed south to and including the Coquille watershed, and that portion of the Umpqua watershed north of Highway 42 and west of Interstate 5. Within these boundaries, locations where bedrock is highly fractured or not of sedimentary origin as determined in the field by a geotechnical specialist are not subject to the Tyee Core area slope steepness thresholds.
(84) "Type D stream" means a stream that has domestic water use, but no fish use.
(85) "Type F stream" means a stream with fish use, or both fish use and domestic water use.
(86) "Type N stream" means a stream with neither fish use nor domestic water use.
(87) "Unit" means an operation area submitted on a notification of operation that is identified on a map and that has a single continuous boundary. Unit is used to determine compliance with ORS 527.676 (down log, snag and green live tree retention), 527.740 and 527.750 (harvest type 3 size limitation), and other forest practice rules.
(88) "Vacated roads" are roads that have been made impassable and are no longer to be used for forest management purposes or commercial forest harvesting activities.
(89) "Water bar" means a diversion ditch and/or hump in a trail or road for the purpose of carrying surface water runoff into the vegetation and duff so that it does not gain the volume and velocity which causes soil movement or erosion.
(90) "Water development" means water bodies developed for human purposes that are not part of a stream such as waste treatment lagoons, reservoirs for industrial use, drainage ditches, irrigation ditches, farm ponds, stock ponds, settling ponds, gravel ponds, cooling ponds, log ponds, pump chances, or heli-ponds that are maintained for the intended use by human activity.
(91) "Waters of the state" include lakes, bays, ponds, impounding reservoirs, springs, wells, rivers, streams, creeks, estuaries, marshes, wetlands, inlets, canals, the Pacific Ocean within the territorial limits of the State of Oregon, and all other bodies of surface or underground waters, natural or artificial, inland or coastal, fresh or salt, public or private (except those private waters which do not combine or effect a junction with natural surface or underground waters), which are wholly or partially within or bordering the state or within its jurisdiction.
(92) "Wetland" means those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or ground water at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands include marshes, swamps, bogs, and similar areas. Wetlands do not include water developments as defined in section (90) of this rule.
(93) “Wildlife leave trees” means trees or snags required to be retained as described in ORS 527.676 (1).
(94) "Written plan" means a document prepared by an operator, timber owner or landowner that describes how the operation is planned to be conducted.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 527.710(1)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 527.630(5), 527.674 & 527.714
Hist.: FB 31, f. 6-14-72, ef. 7-1-72; FB 39, f. 7-3-74, ef. 7-25-74; FB 1-1978, f. & ef. 1-6-78; FB 5-1978, f. & ef. 6-7-78; FB 3-1983, f. & ef. 9-13-83; FB 1-1985, f. & ef. 3-12-85; FB 2-1985(Temp), f. & ef. 4-24-85; FB 2-1987, f. 5-4-87, ef. 8-1-87; FB 4-1988, f. 7-27-88, cert. ef. 9-1-88; FB 4-1990, f. & cert. ef. 7-25-90; FB 1-1991, f. & cert. ef. 5-23-91; FB 7-1991, f. & cert. ef. 10-30-91; FB 3-1994, f. 6-15-94, cert. ef. 9-1-94; FB 5-1994, f. 12-23-94, cert. ef. 1-1-95; FB 9-1996, f. 12-2-96, cert. ef. 1-1-97, Renumbered from 629-024-0101; DOF 6-2002, f. & cert. ef. 7-1-02; DOF 13-2002, f. 12-9-02 cert. ef. 1-1-03; DOF 6-2005(Temp), f. & cert. ef. 8-2-05 thru 1-27-06; DOF 8-2005, f. 12-13-05, cert. ef. 1-1-06; DOF 7-2006(Temp), f.& cert. ef. 6-27-06 thru 12-23-06; DOF 1-2007, f. & cert. ef. 1-8-07; DOF 2-2013, f. 7-11-13, cert. ef. 9-1-13
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